The congestion of the internal veins which occurs from the pressure of the enlarged womb during pregnancy is also a common cause.

It is also said that, when man assumed the upright stance, he not ony threw a strain on his back but on his lower bowel as well. Except for a few old, fat dogs, haemorrhoids are rare in animals.

The most common symptom is bleeding. This tends to be bright blood and to occur at the end of a motion. The blood is not mixed with it but tends to splatter or drip into the pan. It may be noticed on the toilet paper. This is the sign of first degree piles.

Third degree piles prolapse outside and remain there, unless replaced manually. They may also come out when the person stands for long periods or becomes tired.

Prolapsing piles may become squeezed by the tight anal margin and become strangulated. This pressure can lead to thrombosis, the formation of a clot, and is painful.

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It appears everyone agrees induction of labor for purely social or medical convenience is bad medicine.

Normal, uncomplicated labor and delivery usually occur where the standard of pre-natal care is good and complicating factors are recognised and dealt with early in the pregnancy.

In these cases, home delivery would be possible. But most doctors are reluctant to return to this form of obstetrics, because, when complications arise, they are likely to do so quickly and it is then difficult to summon aid promptly.

A compromise, with delivery in surroundings approximating home conditions and with the husband and other family members present, seems to offer the advantages of both extreme positions.

Induction too early, with possible prematurity, constitutes a risk. Conversely, allowing the pregnancy to go on too long is associated with some risks to the baby, in the form of post-maturity (over-term).

The answer to what is best for both the mother and the child has not been universally accepted.

But what is best for the doctor and the hospital must remain subservient to the needs of the two patients involved for each pregnancy.

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