Transmission of HIV
Acute infection
Asymptomatic period
AIDS-related Complex, or ARC
The effects of HIV infection on the body have been studied thoroughly. Many studies have followed people who engage in high-risk behaviors, from before they were infected, through the entire course of the infection, to the final stage of AIDS. We now know the usual course of HIV infection with considerable precision.
In most people, HIV infection follows a clear course: transmission of the virus is followed by an acute infection that clears up spontaneously; then there is a prolonged period during which the person feels good and has no symptoms of infection, that is, is asymptomatic; the person
gradually develops the symptoms that are sometimes called AIDS-related complex, or ARC; eventually, the person develops the disease referred to as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, which is defined by the presence of a variety of other infections in many different parts of the body, the so-called opportunistic infections.
Based on extensive studies, researchers have determined the duration, on average, of each stage. Individual people, however, spend widely varying amounts of time in each stage. Some people with positive HIV blood tests have remained healthy for over ten years, though most have declining numbers of CD4 cells, suggesting some suppression of the immune system.
The course of HIV infection is generally as follows:
Transmission of HIV, usually by blood exposure or through sexual intercourse.
Two to six weeks: Acute infection, meaning the development of an infectious
mononucleosis-like illness from which people recover in one or two weeks. Some people do not even notice this stage.
Four to twelve weeks, sometimes longer: Seroconversion, that is, the body develops antibodies to HIV, and as a consequence, the results of the blood test for the presence of antibodies to HIV are positive.
Asymptomatic interlude, during which the person feels well and functions normally except for the psychological stress that accompanies knowledge of a positive test.
Five to eight years, with considerable individual variation: symptoms of AIDS-related complex, or ARC. Some people never develop ARC but progress directly to AIDS.
Eight to ten years: AIDS as defined by diagnosis of an opportunistic infection, opportunistic tumors, or AIDS dementia.

Type 1 diabetes is a genetically determined disorder, with an increased incidence in monozygotic twins and first-degree relatives or people with type 1 diabetes. Approximately 70% of monozygotic twins develop type 1 diabetes (with prolonged follow-up), and a first degrees relative of a person with type 1 diabetes has approximately one chance in twenty (5% risk) of developing the disease (vs. 1:300 in the general population). The responsible genes are within the major histocompatability complex (MHC) located on chromosome 6 (also called the HB locus). About 40% of the familial aggregation of autoimmune type 1 diabetes is explained by MHC genes, especially HLA class II molecules DQ and DR. Ninety-five percent of type 1 diabetics carry HLA D3, Dl or both compared with 45% of the general population. The presence! an aspartic acid residue at position 57 of the DQ 3 chain is protective for the development of type 1 diabetes. Clustering of long-term complications in families studied in the DCCT suggests that a genetic component contributes to vascular complications.

Cervical Cancer
The number of women this disease killed in the United States dropped from 8,487 in 1960 to 4,627 in 1990. A major cause was early detection with the help of Pap tests and treatment with surgery. There is controversy about the effectiveness of Pap tests, but deaths from cervical and uterine cancers have fallen more than 70 percent since the introduction of the tests in the 1950s, reports the College of American Pathologists. Sexually active women (especially those with more than one partner) would do well to have three successive yearly Pap tests. If each test result is negative, a test every three years is then advised.
Genital warts (papilloma) warn women to get a Pap test. The warts are caused by viruses that may also cause cervical cancer. Prompt removal of these warts is urged for men and women.

Ovarian Cancer
Can screenings detect ovarian cancer early enough to remove it? Dr. Eyre says researchers are trying to determine that answer: “We are testing the effectiveness of pelvic exams, a blood test for a substance called CA 125, as well as a sonar examination of the ovaries.”

Babloo, now 10 years, could not be relieved of ‘Bed wetting’ habit, despite many treatments. In evaluating the case history critically, we found that his younger sister, 6 years old, was also suffering from the same trouble.
The parents of the children were over-strict, and therefore they were forced to live under strict self-control during the day-time.
It was only at night during sleep that the suppressed feelings of the children found vent by freely passing urine unhampered by any physical controls. CHERRY PLUM was given T.D.S for mind losing control over action (urinating), even though it happened during sleep. In a week’s time the children had shed-off their old habit of bed-wetting.
In the negative CHERRY PLUM state the person loses contact with his Higher Self and loses the valuable guidance which alone can steer clear of the turbulent impulses that disturb the mind at times, and some-times lead to insane acts.
In the positive CHERRY PLUM STATE, the person remains always cool and collected with Reason (and not Impulse) in the driver’s seat guiding all physical and mental activity with active participation of his HIGHER SELF.

Bleeding is frightening. Bleeding from the nose is fairly frequent, as is bleeding from a tooth socket or a cut. But a sudden hemorrhage from the lungs or the vomiting of fresh blood or the passing of blood in the urine or in the bowel movements is a cause of anxiety. Because the appearance of blood from the interior of the body is shocking, the statements of people as to the amount of blood lost are seldom dependable. A teaspoonful may seem like a pint. Blood in the stomach or intestines when it appears in the stools has a black or tarry appearance, but it takes at least an eighth of a pint to make the coloration visible.
The severity of the shock that may come from internal bleeding depends on the amount lost and the suddenness with which it occurs. Fever may occur after a hemorrhage, particularly a large one.
The most common cause of vomiting of blood – in forty to eighty per cent of cases – is ulcer of the stomach, or duodenum. Usually the person concerned will have had a previous diagnosis of ulcer. The bleeding usually comes from erosion of a blood vessel in the ulcer. In about five per cent of the cases the cause of vomiting of blood is cancer; that is the reason for having a complete and scientific diagnosis as promptly as possible when this symptom occurs. Hardening of the liver and enlargement of the spleen may back up the circulation so that there are varicose veins in the esophagus or swallowing tube; like other varicose veins these may break and cause the person afflicted to vomit blood. Among miscellaneous and less frequent causes are diseases of the blood like hemophilia and thrombocytopenia in which bleeding is easy.
The first step after vomiting of blood or large hemorrhage from the bowel is to control shock and save life; then comes a careful scientific study to determine the cause and prevent additional bleeding.

The DCCT cohort was less than 39 years old at entry and was followed for only a mean of 6.5 years. Epidemiologic data had previously suggested that coronary artery disease may become apparent in most type 1 patients only after age 40. Therefore, the macrovascular disease rates in the DCCT were low, and no significant differences between intensive vs. standard management were seen. However, trends suggested a beneficial effect of intensive management to reduce the number of; pooled major macrovascular events. An event was defined as death secondary to cardiovascular disease or sudden death, acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery or angioplasty, angina confirmed by angiography, or ischemic changes on noninvasive testing. In addition, major cardiovascular events (fatal or nonfatal stroke) and major peripheral vascular events (amputation, bypass or angioplasty, or claudication with objective evidence) were included.
The number of macrovascular events (40) in the conventionally treated group was greater than that in the intensively treated group (23), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Mean total serum cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in the intensively treated group (p < 0.01), suggesting that long-term benefits may occur.

You can help your doctor choose the best diagnostic tests by providing an accurate medical history. The medical history is a report the doctor of your “medical biography,” or a history of all the significant medical events in your life. The questions asked about your medical history will be more extensive during your first visit with a doctor than on subsequent visits. Also, during a general examination the history that is obtained is broader than during an examination for a specific problem. When you are seeing the doctor for a specific problem, the history can be limited to features pertinent to that problem.
The medical interview is often conducted by the doctor, but it may be conducted by a nurse or physician’s assistant. Sometimes the information is collected with a questionnaire. Regardless of the format, it is helpful if you have thought about and organized this information/before coming to the doctor.
The medical history that you provide will help your doctor decide where and how to focus the subsequent evaluation. The more you can help your doctor pinpoint the problem, the better the doctor will be able to avoid unnecessary testing and focus on finding the problem. If you feel that something is worth mentioning, say it. Your doctor is more likely to make an efficient and correct diagnosis if you focus on the symptoms that are relevant to the problem at hand.
The medical history should consist of the following parts: chief complaint, medical history, family medical history, social history, and review of organ systems.

Rick is a 35-year old teacher who has noticed the general development of breathlessness and chest heaviness during exertion. At first these symptoms were very vague, so he is not sure when they started, although he thinks they may have developed perhaps 2 years ago. Yesterday, he ran upstairs from his basement to answer the doorbell; when he reached the top of the stairs and opened the door, he almost passed out and had to lie down.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an overgrowth of heart muscle that can impair blood flow both into and out of the heart. This type of cardiomyopathy is less common than dilated cardiomyopathy, but it is not rare and has been the focus of much medical interest.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy results from abnormal thickening of the heart wall. The thickening can occur in several places throughout the ventricles. Most commonly it occurs in the septum between the two ventricles just beneath the aortic valve. The septum may be 1 1/2 or more times as thick as the outer wall of the heart. With a thicker muscle wall, the cavity of the ventricle may be smaller. Thus, the volume of blood in the ventricle may be normal or decreased.
This thicker wall is unable to stretch as well during the diastolic (filling) phase of the heartbeat, although contraction during systole is normal or even exaggerated.

Chicken broth is traditionally a favourite food. Whether you like the broth or not, chicken soup is a remarkable liquid and it has been used for generations among the sick.
Yes, we recommend chicken broth for arthritics. It has the right type of oils and vitamins.
When eating a drumstick of a chicken, have you ever taken time to notice the gristle and the lining adjacent to the joint? Next time, look closely. If the gristly cartilage is a golden yellow, the chicken’s diet has been substantially good. When the yellow or colourless gristle (cartilage) is not present at all, that chicken has had arthritis!

Chickens have Arthritis, too
Whether fowl, capon, roaster, fryer or boiler, barnyard creatures can eat their way into arthritis. The farmer can tell when a chicken has joint ailments. He looks at the fowl, and can see their legs swell and the way they limp. We may well wonder why chickens get this disease. Is their diet wrong?
For the most part, chickens eat corn or mash. Corn contains traces of vitamin D in its oil. The oil is there, but like human beings, chickens do not always properly assimilate what is in their food.
Like people, chickens make the mistake of drinking water with their meals—thus disqualifying the essential vitamins. The chicken (or person) who tries to mix oil and water violates one of the oldest rules of chemistry.
When chickens drink water with their corn or mash, the dietary oil turns from lubricating oils into surplus fat. Excess deposits of oil are then found under the skin, or wherever tissue will store it. The result: an arthritic chicken.
When it comes time for you to cook a chicken, watch out for these faulty deposits of fat in the bird. They will not serve your arthritic body, they’ll just fatten you.
Trim away any chicken fat under the skin or in the body cavity of the fowl. If you do not remove this fat before making soup, then skim it off the soup dish.
The only oil worth consuming from the chicken is found in the normal gristled drumstick. There 1 not enough of vitamin D in a single drumstick with a healthy lining to be of really major help. Bat the healthiest chicken broth is made from these drumsticks and the giblets. It is just as easy to make chicken broth from a pound of drumsticks as it is to cook the whole chicken.
If you take time to serve chicken broth, do NOT be tempted to serve it in the following forms:
Chicken soup with rice.
Chicken soup with noodles.
Chicken soup with dumplings.
Remember, rice, noodles and dumplings make the soup starchy . . . the wrong kind of starch. And arthritics must abstain from such carbohydrates if they want to become well and stay well. Brown rice or whole grains are superior to the polished variety, and they may be added in small quantities if you feel that you must have something in your soup.
Again, let us examine the case of a farmer with his chickens—to draw some interesting comparisons for human arthritics. On progressive farms today, many ranchers take steps to give their flocks of chickens a balanced diet. In addition to corn and mash, the fowl are provided with carotene (supplemented carrot oil). Also, they receive some kind of fish-liver oil, combined with their food. This helps the chickens to further productivity and prevents rickets.
With humans, we know that liver oil from the codfish is used successfully to help prevent rickets in children. Fish-liver oil and carotene contain vitamins A and D—and often also have the fertility promoting vitamin E.
The A, D and E vitamins mentioned, in their natural state, exist as oil soluble vitamins. Each vitamin has a job to do and a specific place to go. Vitamin A, as we know, is valuable to the eyes and their linings. Vitamin D, as used against rickets, is of great aid to the minerals for bone and joint formation.
Vitamin E is recommended for fertility. It is found in supplemented carotene. So, when a chicken gets its sustaining food with supplemental vitaminised oil for a few months, there is a very noticeable difference in its appearance. The joints grow straight, with no swelling. The feathers have lustre, the skin is elastic and normal. The eyes are good and the nails of their feet are firm. All this, because oil has been added to the diet!

The doctors and medical experts mentioned above are only a few of the outstanding rheumatologists to whom we owe a vote of thanks. Hundreds of professional men like them also believe that research on cartilage will help solve the “wear and tear” phase of arthritis. This book maintains that we already have a way to aid the cartilage: through proper diet.
To prevent loss of elasticity in cartilage—and to overcome dryness in the linings of the joints-certain dietary oils must be brought into our system with every meal. (The specific oils we need to do this lubricating job are named and discussed in later chapters of this book.)
We have just been reading a great deal about cartilage and how to keep it from “drying out.” We have used cartilage as the main example because it particularly applies to people with osteo-arthritis— and osteo-arthritis encompasses the largest number of cases in America.
May we emphasise, however, that a similar “drying” process also occurs among victims of rheumatoid arthritis. In their case, all the dietary facts in this book still apply. If you have rheumatoid arthritis, the dryness starts in your joint linings In lead of in the cartilage. Your “oiling” problem therefore somewhat easier to solve. Why?
Because the inner structure of the joint lining does have blood vessels and lymphatic channels. Linings can take oil and nourishment directly, while the cartilage cannot. As long as your diet keeps the right nourishment coming in, the joint lining can send oils to the joint cavity. From there, some iodised oil will travel on even farther and reach your cartilage through osmosis.
So, as you can see, everything we have been discussing applies to rheumatoid arthritis, too.